Water sustains both human & marine life & their environment. Even industrial processes like fabricating, diluting & cooling are driven by water. Evidently, it’s immensely vital. The waste generated by manufacturing & industrial processes dumps into lakes, ponds & this poses a great threat to lives. Therefore, water treatment system manufacturers ensure that a good water treatment system is designed that cleans the water from waterborne germs, saline, pesticides & other pollutants/toxicants.
1.Types of a water treatment system
There are three types of water treatment system: community water treatment system, household water treatment system & industrial wastewater treatment system.
2.Composition & Principle of Community water treatment system
a.Coagulation & Flocculation: This is the first step during which positively charged chemicals are put into the water which neutralizes negatively charged particles of dirt & other chemicals present in water. Particles join together with other particles & form bigger particles called floc.
b.Sedimentation: The heavy particles (floc) sink to the bottom because of their weight & this process is called sedimentation.
c.Filtration: After the floc has settled down, the clear water on the top starts to flow through the filters containing different constituents (sand, gravel) leaving behind the impurities of dirt, bacteria & other pathogens.
d.Disinfection: A disinfectant, e.g. (chlorine/chloramine) is added to the water to kill the remnants of a microorganism after the filtration process is completed. Finally, the water flows in pipes to homes & commercial places.
3.Composition & Principle of a Household water treatment system
a.Filtration Systems: Impurities like dirt are banished from the water using a contrivance called water filter. The process can be physical, chemical or biological.
b.Water Softeners: The hardness of water is reduced using water softener replaces calcium & magnesium ions with sodium & potassium, which makes the water hardened.
c.Distillation Systems: The contaminated water is made to boil. After which the steam is condensed & garnered in a separate vessel. This eliminates the solid residues. The process is called distillation.
d.Disinfection: Disinfectants are added in the final step to obliterate any remains of microorganisms & this process is called disinfection. Disinfectants can be physical like heat & chemical like chlorine.
4.Composition & Principal of Industrial water treatment system
A raw water treatment system
a.Intake: Raw water enters into the plant by means of a mesh screen so that no large constituents pass through.
b.Clarification: Water gets clarified in several steps. Initiates with the process of coagulation where chemical particles are clustered to form larger molecules (floc) & the process is called flocculation — followed by the sediment step when heavy molecules sink to the bottom of sludge blanket, leaving behind clear water on top which is then filtered using sand filter to remove remaining impurities.
c.Disinfection: Disinfectants (physical/chemical) are used to annihilate pathogens. E.g. chlorine (physical)
d.Lime softening: This step is included for softening the stream due to high mineral/sulfate content.
e.Ion exchange (IX): The IX unit is included in raw water treatment systems for removing hardness.
f.Distribution: Water is piped for use.
g.Membrane filtration: Microfiltration (MF), Ultrafiltration (UF), and Nanofiltration (NF) systems have taken over the techniques of clarification & lime softening.
Other types of industrial water treatment systems are
- Boiler feedwater treatment systems
- Cooling tower water treatment systems
- Wastewater treatment systems
5.Water treatment manufacturers
a.ESP Water products are one of the many water treatment manufacturers which have four types of water treatment systems for sale.
- Some of them are
- RO Systems
- UV Systems
- Filtration Systems
b.Hengyu Machinery Equipment in China is another water treatment manufacturers that have the following types of water treatment systems for sale:
- Drinking water treatment system
- RO system
- Ro Plant System
c.Fine Tech water treatment Technology is the water treatment manufacturers in Pakistan that have the following water treatment systems for sale:
- Reverse Osmosis
- Ultra Filtration
- RO Membranes
- Domestic RO Plants
- RO Pressure Vessels